* Bumped Up * (This is a critical issue, written in Reverend Amy’s gifted language, that all of us as citizens must focus upon and demand that strong measures be taken to bring this unspeakable behavior to an end. – Bronwyn)

No, I don’t mean whatever flu or cold this is going around right now. I mean what is happening to a number of our women who serve their country in the military.

This is a disheartening result, and is a stain on the honor of those who serve. And that would be this – there is an epidemic of rape and sexual assault against (primarily) women in the Armed Services.

But some of these women are fighting back, as this article highlights
Gates, Rumsfeld Sued Over U.S. Military’s Rape Epidemic:

A landmark lawsuit filed Tuesday against Defense Secretary Robert Gates and his predecessor, Donald Rumsfeld, alleges that the military’s repeated failures to take action in rape cases created a culture where violence against women was tolerated, violating the plaintiffs’ Constitutional rights.

“There are three types of women in the Army,” says Rebecca Havrilla, a former sergeant and explosive-ordnance-disposal technician. “Bitch, dyke, and whore.” During the four years that Havrilla was on active duty, she was called all three—by fellow soldiers, team leaders, even unit commanders. Once, during a sexual-assault prevention training, the 28-year-old South Carolina native claims, she watched a fellow soldier—male—strip naked and dance on top of a table as the rest of the team laughed. While deployed in Afghanistan, Havrilla spent four months working under a man she alleges bit her neck, pulled her into his bed, and grabbed her butt and waist—on a daily basis. When, on the last day of her deployment, she alleges she was raped by a soldier she considered a friend, it was, she says, “the icing on the cake.”

But Havrilla calls herself lucky: the end of her military commitment was in sight. In other cases, soldiers have had to keep fighting alongside, or even under, the person who assaulted them; been ostracized by their units for reporting an attack; or, as another woman says, simply “shoved to the side.” Havrilla and 16 others are now plaintiffs in a class action suit filed Tuesday against Defense Secretary Robert Gates and his predecessor, Donald Rumsfeld, alleging that their failure to act amounted to a violation of the plaintiffs’ Constitutional rights. The suit, brought by Washington, D.C. attorney Susan Burke, and filed in the Eastern Virginia federal court, charges that despite ample evidence of the problem, both Gates and Rumsfeld “ran institutions in which perpetrators were promoted; … in which Plaintiffs and other victims were openly subject to retaliation… and ordered to keep quiet.” The plaintiffs, in turn, have been “directly and seriously injured by Defendants’ actions and omissions.” “It’s shocking,” the case’s lead investigator, Keith Rohman, tells The Daily Beast. “And it’s just hard to understand why they’ve held off. Families all over America send their young men and women to serve and they do that at tremendous personal risk and danger. But this is not a risk that those families want to assume.”

Nor is it a risk they SHOULD assume. Too often, these perpetrators get off scot-free, with the victims further victimized by the very institution they serve.

I have to say, while reading about this lawsuit, and seeing what has happened to these women at the hands of their commanding officers and/or colleagues, often resulting in their dismissal, I am reminded of the story of the 14 year old Bangladeshi girl, raped by her uncle, and then charged with adultery. It is a matter of degrees. The woman is still blamed, and still bears the brunt of both the assault, and loss of vocation, employment, or career (in the matter of the Bangladeshi girl, she lost her life after being lashed to death).

But I am getting ahead of myself. This kind of treatment of women has been going on for a while, but it is getting worse, not better:

[snip] Meanwhile, the numbers continue to rise. In 2009 reported sexual assaults went up 11 percent, according to Department of Defense statistics, with one in three women reporting having been sexually violated while serving in the military. The Pentagon itself admits that reported incidents probably represent just 20 percent of those that actually occur. Female recruits are now far more likely to be raped by a fellow soldier than killed in combat. But women aren’t the only victims; statistics from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs indicate that more than half of those who screen positive for Military Sexual Trauma are men.

“The military is so focused on operational readiness that all these other issues can be labeled ‘minor.’ But the fact of the matter is, it’s destroying the military internally.”

Even when rape cases are reported, the ACLU finds that only 8 percent of them are prosecuted—the civilian system prosecutes 40 percent of alleged perpetrators—and the military trials are often stunningly mishandled. Prosecutors in a case brought by Christine Smith—a civilian who was says that in 2006 she was raped by a man serving in the airborne division—said that they’d lost her underwear, so didn’t introduce it as evidence. But after the soldier was acquitted Smith received a phone call saying she could come retrieve the underwear from the military investigative office.

Oh, dear goddess. That is a staggeringly low percentage. But to first claim evidence was lost to then offer to return it post-trial is the height of callous disregard. What is worse, there is little one can do:

In such cases, the plaintiff has little recourse. “For lots of reasonable historical bases, the military has a level of civil immunity in our society which is quite high,” investigator Rohman says. “There’s a downside to that: their lack of external accountability means that they have not had to adjust in the way the rest of society has.” In particular, a 1950 Supreme Court ruling, known as the Feres Doctrine, places the military beyond the reach of workplace laws regarding sexual discrimination and sexual harassment. To make matters worse, charges are usually investigated within the immediate chain of command. “There’s no investigatory training. They don’t tell you to look for evidence,” says Greg Jacob, who spent 10 years in the Marines and rose to the rank of captain. Instead, they hand over a manual for courts martial, which explains, among other things, that the investigating officer should consider, first and foremost, “the character and military service of the accused.” Jacob says that essentially means weighing each soldier’s past and future value to the unit. “It’s an HR approach to criminal conduct,” he says. “Military justice imbued me with the ability to be judge and jury. Honestly, I had no idea what to do.”

It was watching the military bungle one such investigation that eventually caused Jacob to leave the service. When a course critique revealed that a senior enlisted marine in his company was systematically assaulting “dozens and dozens” of female trainees, Jacob investigated, got more than 80 corroborations of the behavior, and sent the report up along the chain of command. Less than a week later, the offender was sent to Camp Lejune and subsequently deployed for Iraq. When Jacob asked why he hadn’t been prosecuted, Jacob says he was told, “He’s a good soldier. He just can’t handle an integrated training environment.” In Iraq, the marine was killed, leaving a widow and five children. “If they’d prosecuted him, he would have stayed here and lost some stripes, but not been killed,” Jacob says. “That’s when I decided to get out. I’d been in for ten years. I was a decorated combat Marine. They were going to send me to take a unit to Iraq. But they lost out on all my experience, all the money they’d spent on me. The reach of this problem stretches a long way.” (A spokesperson for the Marine’s Manpower and Reserves Public Affairs office said that she couldn’t comment on individual cases.)

Jacob left the military. Ultimately, Havrilla left as well. Three months after returning to the States she was discharged, having been diagnosed with both combat PTSD and sexual assault PTSD. She’s now living in Missouri and is currently unemployed. She hopes that the lawsuit, and the attention it will receive, will compel the military to start outsourcing sexual assault training. “You’re not going to change hearts and minds overnight,” she says. “Someone who is a misogynistic asshole isn’t going to change their minds because of some PowerPoint presentation. But at that point, at least you can’t claim ignorance. There’s no wishy-washy ‘Oh, it’s just boys being boys.’ If you have a leadership that doesn’t give a shit, nothing’s going to change. It has to start from the top down.” And while the suit seeks significant monetary damages, a payout is neither expected nor entirely the point. [snip] (Click here to read the rest.)

This is disturbing on so many levels. As noted above, often these victims are victimized repeatedly, through the deliberate lack of action taken, as was the case here:

[snip] In one incident, an Army Reservist says two male colleagues raped her in Iraq and videotaped the attack. She complained to authorities after the men circulated the video to colleagues. Despite being bruised from her shoulders to elbows from being held down, she says charges weren’t filed because the commander determined she “did not act like a rape victim” and “did not struggle enough” and authorities said they didn’t want to delay the scheduled return of the alleged attackers to the United States.

“The problem of rape in the military is not only service members getting raped, but it’s the entire way that the military as a whole is dealing with it,” said Panayiota Bertzikis, who is a plaintiff in the lawsuit and claims she was raped in 2006. “From survivors having to be involuntarily discharged from service, the constant verbal abuse, once a survivor does come forward your entire unit is known to turn their back on you. The entire culture needs to be changed.” [snip]

Indeed, the culture does need to be changed, though it is too late for these women, whose victimization continues through the “trial,” or the threat or actual loss of career, as was the case for Kori Cioca:

[snip] Even though the man confessed to having sex with her, Cioca said in the lawsuit she was told if she pressed forward with reporting the sex as a rape, she would be court-martialed for lying. She said the man pleaded guilty only to hitting her and his punishment was a minor loss of pay and being forced to stay on the base for 30 days. She said she was discharged from the military for a “history of inappropriate relationships.” [snip] (Click here to read the rest.)

Court-martialed for “lying.” So, not only was she assaulted by this man physically, but sexually as well, and SHE as the one court-martialed. There is something seriously, seriously wrong with this.

Here is Ms. Cioca detailing what happened to her:

“It wasn’t important. I wasn’t important.”

I don’t know about you, but I need a minute after watching this video. Wow.

That is one helluva message for the military to be sending to women. Now you know, I appreciate those who are willing to serve their country, and have a nephew now serving his 3rd tour in the Middle East. But this kind of behavior is systemic, and must be addressed as such. Anyone willing to give of themselves in service to the country deserves to know that the very people in their unit are not going to assault them. And if they DO, they must face the consequences in a sober, serious, meaningful way. Whatever the military is doing now is clearly not working.

I hope these women and men win this lawsuit. But until we, as a nation, are willing to address how women are treated in our country, in our culture, any changes as a result of the lawsuit will be window dressing. As Havrilla said above, “You’re not going to change hearts and minds overnight,” she says. “Someone who is a misogynistic asshole isn’t going to change their minds because of some PowerPoint presentation.” Indeed, we need real, systemic change. Nothing else will do.

  • Linda Anselmi

    As horrific and heart-wrenching as this story is, thank you for your post RRRAmy!!!  It is unacceptable that this continues.  

  • Concerned Alien

    Really? Cry me a frickn river. Where is tthe proof of these allegations? How many times have women made false claims of rape and abuse, only to admit the truth months or years later, or be exposed as liars?  What a waste of print, with all of the corruption taking place in our government and country, why even go here?

  • Breeze


    Now I think I will go take a shower.

  • Breeze


    Smacking Down Tavis Smiley:
    Why, Unlike Jon Stewart,
    I Have Some Respect for Bill Maher

    Big Hollywood,
    by John Nolte

    Original Article


    First off, Tavis Smiley is obviously a dishonest and immoral moral relativist and Bill Maher is exactly right in smacking him down with this epic piece of wisdom: “When you tolerate intolerance, you’re not really being a liberal.” Listen, I know Maher can be intellectually dishonest and unfair and vulgar and that his evangelical crusade to spread his disbelief in God makes an airport Moonie look like the picture of restraint. However, unlike Jon Stewart, Bill Maher does not hide behind a clown nose, he comes to wage political war and says so.

  • JB in VA

    And thank you RRRA for staying on top of these stories. It’s been mentioned before, but I can only wonder how awful it must for these women to be facing not only the declared battlefield enemy and all the dangers that go with that, while also having to deal with more immediate danger from their own fellow soldiers. 

    I think every woman serving should DEMAND full martial arts training, along with absolute permission to take these guys out with a good swift kick aimed at the right spot, regardless of rank or circumstance, and this should be made known to every male soldier and officer, right up to the SecDef.  I honestly don’t think anything short of that is going to end these abuses.

    Enough with the suffering in silence. Time to go on offense. IMHO.     

  • Retired

    We have one former Commander in Chief who has been accused of rape.  Women’s groups have been notably silent on this case or, in some cases, have accused the victim of outright lying.  His Vice President, when asked about the accusation, said, UCMJ-like, that when dealing with accusations against a President, we must weigh the accusation against the good that he has done for the country.  Comments?

  • Penguin

    Is it just me, but do you ever get the feeling that both sides are out to get the people?

  • donjo

    Top 10 Shocking Attacks from the GOP War on Women 

    1) Republicans not only want to reduce women’s access to abortion care, they’re actually trying to redefine rape. After a major backlash, they promised to stop. But they haven’t.
    2) A state legislator in Georgia wants to change the legal term for victims of rape, stalking, and domestic violence to “accuser.” But victims of other less gendered crimes, like burglary, would remain “victims.”
    3) In South Dakota, Republicans proposed a bill that could make it legal to murder a doctor who provides abortion care. (Yep, for real.)
    4) Republicans want to cut nearly a billion dollars of food and other aid to low-income pregnant women, mothers, babies, and kids. 
    5) In Congress, Republicans have proposed a bill that would let hospitals allow a woman to die rather than perform an abortion necessary to save her life. 

    6) Maryland Republicans ended all county money for a low-income kids’ preschool program. Why? No need, they said. Women should really be home with the kids, not out working.
    7) And at the federal level, Republicans want to cut that same program, Head Start, by $1 billion. That means over 200,000 kids could lose their spots in preschool.
    8) Two-thirds of the elderly poor are women, and Republicans are taking aim at them too. A spending bill would cut funding for employment services, meals, and housing for senior citizens.
    9) Congress voted yesterday on a Republican amendment to cut all federal funding from Planned Parenthood health centers, one of the most trusted providers of basic health care and family planning in our country.
    10) And if that wasn’t enough, Republicans are pushing to eliminate all funds for the only federal family planning program. (For humans. But Republican Dan Burton has a bill to provide contraception for wild horses. You can’t make this stuff up).

  • EllenD

    Are the virgins specified as FEMALE?

  • EllenD

    What do other countries do? Why are we too proud – too “exceptional” to find out what other tough disciplned armies do? Israel, Germany?
    Our army is starting to look like undisciplined frat boys on spring break and our military leaders should be shamed into doing something. Ideally it would be because these guys are breaking the law in assaulting other soldiers – remember when Patton got in trouble for slapping a soldier?
    All the military ads stress “honor”. Well, fellas put your money where your mouth is.

  • Rabble Rouser Rev. Amy

    Thank you, JB and Helenk, for the links. These women who are willing to tell their stories are so courageous. There is no way to say this wihtout it being an understatement, but how horrible that we treat these strong, capable women this way…

  • Rabble Rouser Rev. Amy

    I wondered the same thing, PE. I imagine there may be more reporting, though it seems the consequences for the victim are pretty steep (unlike for the perp).

    Good question…

  • PortiaElizabeth

    I believe we’re finally learning more about these assaults, but I also wonder if they’re actually happening with greater frequency. Is our society degenerating to a point where people have set aside morals? Have we devolved into a state where self-gratification trumps ethics?  

  • PortiaElizabeth

    Oh, I have to respond to that myth. Let me tell you, PO, I am a Democrat and have been one for as long as I could vote. I live in New Hampshire and got to see firsthand how the Dems treat women. When Hillary was here for the ’08 primary, she was vilified and marginalized by the Dems who should’ve had her back. She was ridiculed and even though she won here, she was told to get out of the race for the nomination. As a Dem. I was called crazy, deluded, out-of-touch — and those were some of the tamer things hurled at me for supporting Hillary.

    Democrats talk about how they want to empower women,  but it’s all so much lip service. They don’t respect women any more than any other “party” and the only reason I stay a registered Dem is in hopes I can help change the party from the inside. (Yeah, foolish, I know.)

  • oowawa

    AC–very succinct and nicely expressed.  I agree.

  • JB in VA

    Transcript of Piers Morgan interview on Wed. night with 2 army women who were raped and one of the advocates involved in the suit:


    And partial video:


  • helenk

    Warning it is hard to watch.

  • helenk

    this is a PBS report on rape in the military for may 2008. Not much has changed.


    by the way I read somewhere that the lawsuit was filed on Susan B Anthony’s birthday.



  • Rabble Rouser Rev. Amy

    Kenoshamarge, you raise a good point abt the ability of a female soldier to work to the fullest, and to be able to count on her comrades.

  • Rabble Rouser Rev. Amy

    I understand exactly what you are saying. It does make the other comments seem disconnected, at best. Thanks for your opinion on that.

    And thank you, AC – I admit, some stories are pretty hard to write, and this was one such story…

  • kenoshamarge

    If a female soldier cannot believe that her “comrads in arms” have her back she isn’t going to perform to the best of her ability. And do the assholes that “rape” their conrads ever stop to think that maybe someday they might need that “Bitch-Dyke-Whore” to cover them? Because I can tell you that if a bastard that had raped me needed me to protect him, he’d be in a lot of trouble. If I didn’t shoot him first. Oops, did I say that? My bad.

  • kenoshamarge

    Too bad the Dems fled back to Wisconsin. They should have stayed in Illinois where they would have been able to “hide” in plain sight with the corrupt pols in that corrupted state. We don’t want them back here. At least most of us don’t.

    We elected Scott Walker to do a job. He’s trying to do it. The “chickenshit” Dems that run like theives in the night in stead of doing their job are disgusting POS losers.

    Funny how over the past years when the Dems were riding tall in the saddle the Republicans didn’t run away and hide in order to escape a vote they didn’t like? What would happen if all the pols did that? There needs to be a law against this kind of adolescent behavior.

    Oh and all those teachers that stayed home from work, fire their asses. That will save a lot of money. And let the rest know that unless they start doing their job, as in educating the kids, they will be fired too. I am sick to death of teachers being treated as if they are something special when many aren’t doing their damn job. The good ones need to speak up and out because otherwise they will be lumped in with all the sub-standard teachers that the union has protected and foisted on us to the detriment of our education system.

    Oh and the DNC and it’s activists must have felt their weren’t enough protesters in Wisconsin or they wouldn’t have needed to bus so many in.

    I voted for Scott Walker and I am 100% for what he’s doing.

  • AC

    Rev. Amy,
    I forgot to commend your dilligence on keeping stories of this nature  in our collective conciousness–so keeo it up “women are persons too”  and I believe in “the equal protection of the laws”.

  • AC

    Reverend Amy, I agree that the “offensive comment” should not be unchallenged and the perpetrator should be banned from further commenting.  However, I also believe that the comment should have remained and the responses to that comment explaining why in the future this commenter will be banned.
    To delete the comment and subsequent reactions is not consistent with historical facts.  The offensive comment was made and the perpetrator thereafter banned would serve as an example of “free speech” and non-censorship—we can’t put the toothpaste back in the tube. 
    It happened, let it stay. History is important.

  • AC

    Reverend Amy, I agree that the “pffensive comment” should not be unchalanged and the perpetrator should be banned from further commenting.  However, I also believe that the comment should have remained and the required answere to that comment explaining why in the future this commentor will be banned.

    To delete the comment and subsequent reactions is not consistant with historical facts.  The offensive comment was made and the perpetrator thereafter banned and would serve as an example of “free speech”  we can’t put the toopaste back in the tube.  It happened, let it stay. History is important.

  • carol haka, Matzo

    They are hiding behind Hillary and Sarah’s skirts.

    What I love is the number of people who have gone down since the failure to stand up against the lies and viciousness towards these women.

    Run Sarah, Run! :*


  • Prime Obot

    Rev Amy, you aren’t on the side of the public employees in Wisconsin, either? You really might be America’s only right-wing Republican feminist, lol.

    Good post. The military’s treatment of women is an ongoing horror. I just cannot understand your willful refusal to acknowledge which political party it is in this country that has been attacking women’s rights, and which one has been promoting and defending them, for going on 40 years now.  

  • Kathleen Wynne

    Rev. Amy,

    It is also testament to the kind of character these men have or rather LACK!  This brave woman was right to remind everyone that the calibre of integrity and character one expects from someone in the armed forces should be higher than this dispicable behavior indicates.  

    what’s worse is that the top brass santioned it by turning a blind eye to it.  These men who consider themselves “the best of the best”, obviously have a very low standard in measuring what it means to be “the best.”

    Where are those men who would never hesitate to speak out publicly against any injustice based on racism, but are totally deaf, dumb and blind when it comes to sexism of the worst kind?

  • SeriouslyStrongWoman

    I am so LOVING how you told that  NEGATIVE person to use your proper title, ROFL!!  I deeply admire you as STRONG, CONFIDENT and INTELLIGENT WOMAN that deserves respect because you are writing about the hidden TRUTHS in our own society of women’s abuse and the lack of consideration for what is really happening within our own country.  Additionally,  I love that you put that freeloader in his place!  I think that tech support should add a moderation for comments when they are copied and pasted onto this site, like you have exceeded the amount of words type thingie, LOL.  I truly believe they do it to cost NOQUARTER money bc they know we don’t read there damn talking points http://www.babyO dot com, LOL! 


    Thank you, thank you…that one that I emailed about was just too crude and detestable to put up with.

  • yttik

    It would pretty funny if they got to heaven and discovered they were the virgins they had been waiting for.

  • Bronwyn


    Let me know if said person returns.

    FYI: This means that your replies to said person will appear odd since what you’re replying to is now gone.

    IMPORTANT FYI:  Don’t reply to these a–holes.  GIVE THEM THE COLD SHOULDER.  And report them.

  • Breeze

    ” WTH is wrong with those people?”


    RRRAmy – they’re all Mafia thugs, now….

  • Rabble Rouser Rev. Amy

    Thanks, Cindy – and no, it doesn’t seem to stop, does it? Unfortunately, it seems that Tailhook was not an aberration, but rather an indication…

  • carol haka, Matzo

    No morals.  And, I wouldn’t want one of the assholes teaching my child after I see what insensitive, greedy instigators they are.

    I hope they are videoing them and they get fired for lying about their status for the day.


  • Cindy

    Rev. Amy—-It just doesn’t stop, does it?! Is there ANY place on earth where women are not treated as sex objects on some level? Obviously not.
    Many thanks again for your work on posts such as this one!

  • Donna brazilla nut

    Leave it to f- to make light of this post. Get you some of that kind of attention dimbot.

  • Rabble Rouser Rev. Amy

    Excellent point, yttik. Yes, that is an improvement. Thanks.

  • yttik

    I know this is depressing news, Rev Amy, but we have to also keep in mind that it is good news. Not long ago there were no sexual assaults because nobody dared to report them. Often when you have women suing and going public it’sd actually a sign of progress. Women have been victimzed since forever.

  • ~~JustMe~~

    and the children!

  • Rabble Rouser Rev. Amy

    It is REVEREND Amy to you,and your link to Wikipedia for the claim of 1/3 women in Parliament proved nothing of the kind. THIS link, from Egypt News, states that 56 seats were added for women, bringing to 500 the number in the House. That is NOT a third.

    Your personal attacks are tiresome. I have been patient with you making such derogatory comments abt me, but my patience has worn thin. I have referred your latest comment to the Admin.

  • Rabble Rouser Rev. Amy

    That it is, Teak. It is gut-wrenching to read or listen to these stories, knowing how much these women have already sacrificed being in theater, away from family. To then have the very people on whom they are supposed to be able to rely attack them in sucha  heinous manner is abhorrent. And it dishonors those who do serve nobly.

  • carol haka, Matzo

    + Why are you here?  Seriously, who the fucks cares what you have to say.  People on this blog aren’t persuaded by your garbage.

    Move along little doggy!

    There, did I just make you a dollar for engaging?  I hope so.


  • Rabble Rouser Rev. Amy

    Well, I wish I could say it is my pleasure, but you know – it is horrendous what is happening to these women (and some men) by their fellows or superiors. Disturbing to say the least.

    And did you see that the “Organizing for America” thugs for the DNC are busing in people for the wildcat strikes in WI? I cannot believe they are equating the need for a state to have public employees get fewer benefits with removing a dictator. WTH is wrong with those people? Sheesh.

  • carol haka, Matzo

    No wonder they are looking for virgins in the afterlife, they have already assaulted all the women here on earth!


  • carol haka, Matzo

    Thanks Amy for keeping us up to date.  People have no idea how awful these creeps are because it doesn’t get any media attention.  They are enthralled with Sanford having a girlfriend or Clinton, but rape and sexual harrassment of an everyday human isn’t that interesting.

    OT  I have to lighten up:

    Wisconsin Dems flee in bus to motel in Illinois.  They are tracked there and a call went out to the Tea Party to head over and video these losers.  Wisconsin Dems flee in bus upon hearing the Tea Party is headed in their direction and head back to Wisconsin.  I hope the Gov. can have them arrested.

    These are the Chickenshits we have as elected officials. 


  • TeakWoodKite

    Rev. Amy, it is a very difficult stain to remove and pain to bear let alone read about.

    I really do hope the culture that permits this is dealt with sternly.

    It takes a great fortitutude to not stick on’es head in the sand and pretend it doesn’t exist.
    I thank you for keeping this issue at the fore, as wrenching as it is.

  • TeakWoodKite

    ‘+’, why are you a muslim?


    @ +

    You’re such an asshole jerk.

  • +


    It must be all those muslims in the U.S. military who are assaulting and abusing women. I am surprised you did not make the link. You like to link everything else to your hatred of muslims.

    “In the past several decades, many countries in which Muslims are a majority, including Indonesia,[111] Pakistan,[112] Bangladesh,[113] andTurkey,[114] and Kyrgyzstan have been led by women. Nearly one-third of the Parliament of Egypt also consists of women.”